Raku ware, the Raku family and the Raku masters

Tsubo
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Raku ware, the Raku family and the Raku masters

Message par Tsubo » 13 Août 2015, 23:59

Seulement "in english" pour l'instant (à moins que quelqu'un veuille se dévouer pour faire une traduction en français) un historique rapide de la céramique Raku et des maîtres qui se sont succédé à la tête de la famille Raku :

Raku ware
Japanese lead-glazed earthenware, originally invented in 16th-century Kyōto. Quite distinct from wares that preceded it, raku represents an attempt to arrive at a new kind of beauty by deliberate repudiation of existing forms. The shape of the vessels is extremely simple: a wide, straight-sided bowl set on a narrow base. Because raku wares are molded entirely by hand, each piece expresses the individuality of the maker's hand; and pieces tend to be unique creations. The glaze colours include dark brown, light orange-red, straw colour, green, and cream etc.

Raku Kichiza’emon title
One of the Senke Jissoku, “The Ten Craftsmen of the House of Sen”. He was Chawan-shi, “Tea bowl crafts artist”. With Chōjiro as the first generation master, the family has been continuously creating Raku-yaki "Raku wares", a type of Japanese Pottery that is traditionally used in the Japanese Tea Ceremony, most often in the form of tea bowls. Since the second generation master Jokei, the master has been taking the name "Kichiza'emon". Since the third generation master, a name with a character "Iri" or “nyū” has been often being used after retirement.


- First Generation : Chōjiro (? -1589)
Rikyu discovered his talent. Under Rikyu's instruction, Chōjiro started creating Raku ware tea bowls. He created "Daikoku" a well known master piece, of Rikyu Nana-shu "Seven kinds of tea bowls of Rikyu's choice”.

- Second Generation : Jōkei (? -1635)
His childhood name was Yoji. He was the child of Tanaka Sokei. He was the master craftsman. He received Shogun Tokugawa Hidetada's patronage. It is said he was also on close terms with Hon'ami Koetsu, a distinctive ceramic and calligraphy artist whose calligraphy work was known as Kan’ei-no-Sanpitsu "Three important brushworks of the Kan’ei period". Jokei created Kuro (black) Raku, so called Do-an guro (black), favored by Sen Do-an. The surface is rather mat finish, and its body is thin, which gives coarse impression. He also completed Haku-yu “white glaze”, known as Koro-yu.

- Third Generation : Dōnyu (1599-1656)

He was the eldest son of the second generation master Jokei. His name was Kichibe'e. Later he took the name as Kichiza'emon. His common name was Nonkō. He was a master craftsman and called the best artist of all the Raku familes. Strong influence of Hon'ami Kōetsu, who was on close terms with him, was observed on many of his works. Most of his works were in the form of tea bowls. His master pieces are Nonkō Nana-shu (seven kinds), Nonkō Kaga Nana-shu, Nonkō Atogawa Nana-shu, and so forth.

- Forth Generation : Ichi'nyu (1640-1696)

He was the eldest son of the third generation master Dōnyu. He was first named Sahe'e, later, Kichibe'e and Kichiza'emon. He learned ceramic techniques from his father. He also received instruction from Hon'ami Kōho, a son of Kōsa, the adopted son of Hon'ami Kōetsu. Vermillion glaze seen in Kuro (black) Raku is said to be Ichi'nyu's invention.

- Fifth Generation : Sonyu (1664-1716)
He was firstly named as Heishiro. He was a child of Kariganeya San'emon. He was the son-in-law of Ichi'nyu, the forth generation master. He was a cousin of Ogata Kōrin and Ogata Kenzan, the distinctive ceramic crafts artists and painters of that period. His common name was Sōkichi. At the age of 27, he became the heir of Ichi'nyu and changed his name to Kichiza'emon. In 1708, he retired at the age of 45, and took the name Sōnyu, whose character "Sō" was given from Zuiryusai Sōsa, the fifth generation tea master of Omotesenke "Front Sen Family". His notable pieces include tea bowls called "Seigetsu", "Suru Sumi", "Taro", "Jiro", "Tsuyu Shigure" and so on. Also, Onigawara of Zangetsu-tei tea ceremony room of Omotesenke “Front Sen family” is well-known. Onigawara is a ridge-end roof tile, often with a face of Oni or “Demon” carved.

- Sixth Generation : Sa'nyu (1685-1739)
He was firstly named as Sōkichi. He was the second son of Yamatoya Kihe'e. He was married into the family of his bride, whose father was Sōnyu, the fifth generation master. In 1708, he succeeded to Kichiza'emon name from Sōnyu, his father-in-law, and became the head of his family business. In 1728, he retired and took the name Sa'nyu, whose character “Sa” was bestowed by Kakukakusai Sōsa, then tea master of Omotesenke “Front Sen family”. Sa'nyu left outstanding replicas of Chōjiro the first generation master’s works, of Dōnyu, the third, and Hon'ami Kōetsu. In his later life, his creations Sa'nyu Nihyaku Chawan “Two hundred tea bowls” are famous as well.

- Seventh Generation : Chōnyu (1714-1770)
He was the eldest son of Sa'nyu, the sixth generation master. He firstly was named Sōkichi, Eisei, and later at the age of 15, he succeeded the family business as Kichiza'emon and took the title name “Tsuisai”. In 1762 he retired and took the name Chōnyu, whose character “Chō” was given from Chōjiro, the first generation master. He was skillful at Saiku-mono, or “detailed handicraft works”. He experimented new techniques, using Shippō Sukashi or “Ring layered openwork pattern” , Kōchi (southern Chinese) style glazes, gold leaf and paint, and so on. Every new year, he offered “Tama no E Kuro Chawan” , requested by Joshinsai, the seventh generation tea master of Omotesenke “Front Sen family”. Also, his creation of tea bowls with pine tree pattern requested by the company of Joshinsai are well-known.

- Eighth Generation : Toku'nyu (1745-1774)
He was the eldest son of Chōnyu, the seventh generation master. At the age of eighteen, he succeeded to his family business and took the name Kichiza'emon. However in 1770, when Chōnyu died, he gave over the head position to his younger brother Sōjiro and retired. His retired name was Sahe'e. As he passed away unexpectedly early, few numbers of his works are left; most of them are Aka (red) Raku wares.

- Ninth Generation : Ryōnyu (1756-1834)
His childhood name was Sōjiro. He was the second son of Chōnyu, the seventh generation master and the younger brother of Tokunyu, the eighth generation master. Tokunyu was in poor health, thus in 1770, he succeeded to the head position of his family business and took the title name Kizen. In 1811, he retired and took the name Ryōnyu, whose character "Ryō" was bestowed by Ryōryōsai, the ninth generation tea master of Omotesenke “Front Sen family”. He was known as the master craftsman of Raku family revival and was skillful at using Hera or “Spatula”.

- Tenth Generation : Tannyu (1795-1854)
He was firstly named as Sōjiro. He was the second son of Ryōnyu, the second generation master. In 1811, at the retirement of his father-master Ryōnyu, he succeeded as Kichiza’emon. In 1819, together with his father Ryōnyu, he assisted Oniwa-yaki Kairakuen Kiln, owned by Tokugawa Harutomi of Kii province. Oniwa-yaki means Tokugawa owned garden-baked under the direct orders of Tokugawa family. In the same year, Harutomi bestowed Raku seal onto him. He retired in 1845 and took the name Tannyu, whose character “Tan” was bestowed by Kyūkosai Sōtan, the tenth generation tea master of Omotesenke, "Front Sen family".

- Eleventh Generation : Keinyu (1817-1902)

His childhood name was Sōkichi. He was the third son of Ogawa Naohachi, the liquor maker. In 1827, he became the adopted son of Tanyu, the tenth generation master. In 1845, Tannyu retired and he succeeded to the next generation master and took the name Kichiza'emon. He was twenty-nine years old then. He opened Oniwagama Tsuyuyama-yaki kiln especially for Nishi Hongan-ji Temple in Yamashina, Kyoto.

- Twelfth Generation : Kōnyu (1857-1932)
His childhood name was Kozaburo, later became Kichō (or, Yoshinaga). He was the eldest son of Keinyu, the eleventh generation master. In 1871, he succeeded the family business and became the generation master. In 1919 he retired and took the name as Kōnyu. He enjoyed his retirement in practicing tea ceremony and writing haiku. His Aka (red) Raku wares were famous for the dynamic use of spatula. He was also skillful at using double layering glazes for Kuro (black) Raku wares.

- Thirteenth Generation : Seinyu (1887-1944)
He was the eldest son of Kōnyu, the second generation master. He succeeded to the name Kichiza'emon. He published a book “Sadō no Seseragi” (“Delicate Streams of the way of Tea ceremony”). He made efforts in spreading Tea ceremony cultures to the public.

- Forteenth Generation : Kakunyu (1918-1980)
He was the eldest son of Seinyu, the thirteenth generation master. He graduated from Tokyo Bijutsu Gakko, “Tokyo school of Arts” (today's Tokyo University of the Arts) in 1940. He majored in Sculpture. He served in the world war. After the end of the war, he succeeded to the name Kichiza'emon. In 1977 He established an incorporated foundation, Raku Art Museum. He donated artworks by generation masters and related documents. In the following year, he was acknowledged as one of the holders of Important Intangible Cultural Property.

- Fifteenth Generation : present master (1949- present)
He is the eldest son of Kakunyu, the fourteenth generation master.
He succeeded to the name Kichiza'emon in 1981.

Lionel
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Re: Raku ware, the Raku family and the Raku masters

Message par Lionel » 02 Avril 2017, 23:27

le vide, c'est la base

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Re: Estampes japonaises

Message par Lionel » 20 Novembre 2017, 14:52

Je ne sais trop où le poster...

http://www.nippon.com/en/people/e00111/
Interview de Raku Kichizaemon XV.
le vide, c'est la base

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Re: Raku ware, the Raku family and the Raku masters

Message par Tsubo » 20 Novembre 2017, 21:44

Plutôt là :lol:

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Re: Raku ware, the Raku family and the Raku masters

Message par Lionel » 21 Novembre 2017, 10:02

:-_-:
le vide, c'est la base