Chanoyu : Urasenke school and his masters

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Vénérable Maocha
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Chanoyu : Urasenke school and his masters

Message par Tsubo » 13 Août 2015, 23:53

Seulement "in english" pour l'instant (à moins que quelqu'un veuille se dévouer pour faire une traduction en français) un historique rapide des maîtres qui se sont succédé à la tête de l'école Urasenke :

Urasenke ("Back Sen House")
One of the San-Senke or "three Sen houses/families". The other two are Omotesenke "Front Sen family" and Mushakōjisen family. With Sen no Rikyū, the Japanese tea master who perfected the Way of Tea as their ancestor, after the second and third generation masters (Sen Shōan and Sen Sōtan, respectively), Sensō Sōshitsu was the one who originated the Urasenke "Back Sen" family. He was the forth son of Sen Sōtan, the third generation tea master. Kon’nichi-an, Urasenke's chashitsu, or the tea ceremony room is a synonym of Urasenke. The common title name of the generation masters is Sōshitsu.


- Forth Generation : Sensō Sōshitsu (1622-1697)
He was the forth son of Sen Sōtan, the third generation tea master. His childhood name was Chōkichirō. At first he aspired to be a doctor. He learned medical science with Noma Gentaku as his teacher. Later, he took the name Genshitsu. Since Sensō, taking this name became a family tradition either at succession of Iemoto "tea master" position, or after the retirement. As the tea magistrate, he served for Maeda Toshitsune, the third feudal lord of the domain of Kaga (today’s southern Ishikawa prefecture facing the sea of Japan). After the death of Toshitsune, he continuously served for up to the fifth feudal lord, Tsunanori. Meanwhile, he ordered Chōza’emon, the head ceramic craftsman to construct a kiln of Ōhi-yaki wares. He also ordered Miyazaki Kanchi to create Cha Yugama or Chagama, Japanese tea ceremony caldrons. His equipment of choice includes as following: Tabi Makura, a flower vase that resembles a small pillow, Také Hana-ire, a bamboo made flower vase, Kara Kōgō, a ring shaped incense container, Gan Kōgō, a ceramic incense container whose shape is a wild goose. Also it includes Shioya Gama, a cauldron inspired by sea salt making, whose surface decorated with wave and shell patterns, and handles placed on top with holes, that remind of chimneys of the salt-making hut; Kashiwa Gama, a cauldron with oak leaves carved; Yugao Hira Mizusashi, a flat water ceramic bowl with bottle gourd floral pattern; Ōhi-yaki Hira Mizusashi, a flat water bowl in Ōhi-yaki ware style; Mochizuki Natsume, a weak green tea container with a lid; Kawataro Natsume, a weak green tea container whose lid is dent in the center, just like Kappa folklore monster, and so on.

- Fifth Generation : Fukyūsai Joso (1673-1704)
He was the eldest son of the forth generation master Sensō. His childhood name was Yosaburo, later he was named as Sōan. He became the magistrate of the domain of Kaga. Later, he moved to Iyo and became the tea magistrate for the Hisamatsu family, the feudal lord of the domain of Iyo Matsuyama, today’s Ehime prefecture in Shikoku, one of the four main islands of Japan. He died at the age of 32 in 1704. His equipment of choice includes as following: Nakamura Meimeibon, a set of round desert plates; Kōaka Chaki (or Natsume), a usucha weak green tea container whose black lacquered body is shallow and vermillion lid is deep; Tsuru-tsuki Chaki, a tea pot with an arched handle on top; Hikidashi-tsuki Chabako, a compact portable box with drawers to store tea equipment, and so forth. He created a water well that supplies Kinryū-sui water from the house of Abe Tōbe’e. He preferred a two-tatami mattress tea room.

- Sixth Generation : Rikkansai Taiso (1694-1726)
He was the eldest son of Fukyūsai, the fifth generation master. His childhood name was Seikichiro, later he changed to Sōan. At the age of 11, when his father died, he succeeded to be the sixth generation master. He was trained by Kakukakusai, the sixth generation master of Omotesenke "Front Sen family". He was also skillful at Yōkyoku, singing Noh lyrics and Kyōgen, a performance of traditional comic theater. He died in 1726, at the age of 33 in the Edo style mansion of the Hisamatsu family, the feudal lord of the domain of Matsuyama. His remains were also rest in Tōkai-ji temple in Shinagawa. His equipment of choice includes as following: Yūin Sukigi Gama, a flat shaped brimmed cauldron used in Yūin, the Urasenke tea room; Kagami Gama whose lid resembles an ancient mirror; Ume no Kama, a cauldron with a plum bud shaped lid-knob; Hyō Gama, a calabash or bottle gourd shaped cauldron and so forth. In his twenties, he got married and had a child, however, the child died early. His younger sister tonsured and became a nun, named Sosen-ni of convent Saiho-ji temple in Kitano. Later, she became the thirtieth generation chief woman priest.

- Seventh Generation : Saisaisai Jikusō (1709-1723)
He was the second son of Kakukakusai, the six generation master of Omotesenke, "Front Sen family", and the younger brother of Joshinsai, the seventh generation master of Omotesenke. He was originally from Omotesenke "Front Sen family". He was adopted into the family of Rikkansai, the sixth generation master of Urasenke "Back Sen family", who had no children. His childhood name was Seinosuke, and later changed to Sōkan. As the tea magistrate he served for the domains of Kaga (today’s Ishikawa prefecture) and Matsuyama (today’s Ehime prefecture). In 1723, he died at the age of 25. His equipment of choice includes Kan’un Natsume, made of famous cherry wood, Uchishu Shihō Bon, a squared tray whose inside is vermillion lacquered, Aka Raku Tsuru Kōgō, a red Raku ware, crane-shaped incense container, Ikkan Tōgumi Hira Sumitori, flat Ikkan-syle woven basket to store charcoal, and so forth.

- Eighth Generation : Yūgensai Ittō (1719-1771)

He was originally from Omotesenke, "Front Sen family". He was the third son of Kakukakusai, the sixth generation Omotesenke tea master and the younger brother of Saisaisai, the seventh generation master. He was adopted into the Urasenke "Back Sen family", since the seventh generation master died young. His childhood name was Jūichiro. As the tea magistrate he served for the domains of Kaga (today’s Ishikawa prefecture) and Matsuyama (today’s Ehime). He practiced Zen meditation under the instruction of Dairyū Sōjō, the Zen priest of Gyokurin'in at Daitoku-ji temple in Kyoto. He was given the title name Yūgensai. He restored Kon'nichi'an tea ceremony room of Urasenke, "Back Sen family". With cooperation of Joshinsai, his older brother and Dairyū Sōjō, the priest of Daitoku-ji temple in Kyoto, Yūgensai constituted Shichiji Shiki, the "Seven rules to deepen the spirits and techniques for the way of tea ceremony". His equipment of choice includes as following: Yūgao Daisu, a portable double-shelved display with a gourd design, Icho Daisu, a portable double-shelved display with Icho or ginkgo leaf design, Yaki Giri Dana, a display shelf with arch shaped legs, made of burnt paulownia wood, Tsubo Tsubo Oh Natsume, a large usucha weak green tea container with Tsubo (Sanzen or three Sen family crest) pattern, and Oimatsu Chaki, a tea container made of aged pinewood. Also, his equipment of choice includes Ameyū Tetsuki Mizusashi, a carmel color glazed tea pot with a handle, Chikkon Mizusashi, a water jar made of bottom bamboo trunk, Oimatsu-bori Shinchū Kaigu, a set of brass-made tea ceremony equipment with aged pine tree relief, Futon Gama, round flat cushion-like cauldron, Yūgao Gama, a gourd bottle shaped cauldron, and so forth.

- Ninth Generation : Fukensai Sekiō (1746-1801)
He was the eldest son of Yūgensai, the eighth generation tea master. His childhood name was Jūichiro, and later changed to Genshitsu. He was title named as Kan'un. In 1788 both Senke and Urasenke families were involved in the big fire in Kyoto. The families quickly worked on restoration and were able to hold the 200th death memorial tea ceremony for Rikyū. As the tea magistrate he served for the domains of Kaga (today's Ishikawa prefecture) and Matsuyama (today's Ehime prefecture). In 1801, he died at the age of 56. His children were Nintokusai, the eldest son, Sōgen, the second son, and Sōju, the third. Sōju was adopted into Ittotsusai, the eighth generation master of the Mushakōjisen family and later became Kōkōsai Jin'oh, the ninth generation master there. His equipment of choice includes Matsu no Ki Kōgō, a pinewood made incense container, Hakkaku Kōgō, an octagonal incense container, Taiko Dō Futa-oki, a bronze-made Taiko (Japanese drum) shaped lid rest, Kiri Kiku É Tabacco Bon, a paulownia wooden tray with chrysanthemum floral pattern to store tabacco kit, and so forth.

- Tenth Generation : Nintokusai Hakusō (1770-1826)
He was the eldest son of Fukensai, the ninth generation master. His childhood name was Eizaburo. He succeeded to be Iemoto, the tea master at the age of 32. As the tea magistrate he served for the domains of Kaga (today's Ishikawa prefecture) and Matsuyama (today's Ehime prefecture). In 1826, he died at the age of 57. His equipment of choice includes Shinchu Yūgao Bori Kiri'ai Furo, a brass-made gourd floral pattern brazier on top of which a cauldron sits directly, Yūgao Natsume, a weak green tea container with gold lacquered gourd floral pattern, Oridame Natsume, a weak green tea lacquered container made of bend wooden panel, Ikkan Mikazuki Kōgō, Ikkan style lacquered crescent shaped incense container, Sem'men Kōgō, a fan shaped incense container, and so on.

- Eleventh Generation Master : Gengensai Seichū (1801-1877)
He was the son of Matsudaira Noritomo, who was Nuinokami, the chief of Nuidonoryō of Okudono feudal lord in Mikawa-kuni (today's Aichi prefecture). Nuidonoryō was the Ministry of central affairs that supervised women of the court, organizing member lists, clothes-sewing and so on. His childhood name was Chiyomatsu. At the age of ten, he was adopted into the Urasenke "Back Sen" family. After the 20th year old coming-of-age ceremony, he got married with Machi, the eldest daughter of Nintokusai, the tenth generation Urasenke tea master. Machi herself was a tea practitioner, however she died at the age of 36. Thus, he got remarried with Teru, her younger sister. He suggested and introduced new styles of Tema’e, ritual preparation of tea: Ryurei-shiki, a preparation procedure being seated on the chair, treatment of Dairo (big brazier), Wakin Daté, a special preparation with a special cloth, Chabako Daté, outdoor travel style tea ceremony, using a portable box of tea equipment, and so on. Ichi'nyosai was the son with his second wife, however, he died young at the age of 17. Gengensai himself died at the age of 68, in 1877. His equipment of choice includes many pieces: firstly, Okami Sake Zutsu Hana'ire, a flower vase that resembles the Sake bottle for gods, Tsuru Kubi Kago Hana'ire, a woven vase that resembles the neck of a crane, Tagoura Kōgō, a rectangular incense container with wave lacquer painting on the back of the lid, Fudegaki Kōgō, an incense container with persimmons and tree branches painted on top of the lid, and Tsukihigai Kōgō, a saucer-scallop shaped incense container. Secondly, it includes Karauta Oh Natsume, a large weak green tea container with Chinese poetry written, Hagoromo Natsume, a weak tea container with silk chiffon sash pattern, and Tokufū Natsume, a black flat lacquered weak green tea container, with characters "Ichi Ryu Man Bai" on top of the lid and nine pieces of rice on the back of the lid. "Ichi Ryu Man Bai" means one piece of rice will produce an abundant harvest of rice by ten thousand. Lastly it includes Usa Mimi (rabbit ear) Mizusashi, a water jar with rabbit shaped handles on both sides, Urachidori Mizusashi, a water bucket with multi plover pattern on the back of the lid, and so forth.

- Twelfth Generation : Yūmyōsai Jikisō (1852-1917)
He was originally born in Kadokura family in Kyoto. At the age of 18, he married into the house of his bride, Yukako, the eldest daughter of Gengensai, the eleventh master of Urasenke. He named himself Genshitsu. In 1871, he succeeded to Iemoto, the generation tea master, however, in 1885 at the age of 34, he handed over his position to Komakichi, his eldest son. He moved to Myōkian in Yamazaki and worked on promoting Tea ceremony. In 1917, he died in Sakai, Osaka. His title name was Yūken. His equipment of choice include Fune Kōgō, a boat shape incense container, Sumiyoshi Gama, a cauldron with Sumiyoshi Taisha shrine scenic pattern, Oimatsu Natsume, a weak green tea container made of aged pinewood, Fubako Tobacco Bon, a tray that resembles a stationery tray-box, to store tobacco kit, and so forth.

- Thirteenth Generation : En'nosai Tecchu (1872-1924)
He was the eldest son of Yūmyōsai, the twelfth generation master. His childhood name was Komakichi, and his title name was Tairyūken. At the age of fourteen, he succeeded to Iemoto, the generation tea master position. He got married with Tsunako, a relative of the Kuki family, the feudal lord of the domain Sanda in today’s Hyogo prefecture. Temporarily, they lived in Gazenbō, Azabu, Tokyo and worked on developing the Way of Tea with Tanaka Sōboku, a pupil of Gengensai who was in Tokyo. His title name En'nosai honorably uses one character taken from Kitashirakawanomiya Yoshihisa imperial prince. Tecchu, the other title name uses one character taken from Komatsunomiya Akihito imperial prince. He introduced Tema'e, ritual preparation of tea in such styles: Sanyū no Shiki, one of the Shichiji Shiki, "Seven rules to deepen the spirits and techniques for the way of tea ceremony", Koicha (dark green tea) Kakufukudate, serving one tea bowl per guest, Nagashidate, a special simple preparation, restorations of Dai En no Shin, one of the highest ranked Tema'e , and Dai En no Sō, an elaborated preparation serving two different kinds of koicha dark green tea. En'nosai died in 1924 at the age of 53. His choice of equipment includes Kokushi Maru Gama, a round cauldron. The name of this cauldron comes from Shun'oku Sōen, the highest priest ("Kokushi") in the sixteenth century who was said to have owned the same shaped cauldron. Also his choice includes Jūnigatsu Natsume, a set of twelve weak tea containers with monthly designs, Gin Sanpō Futaoki, a silver-rimmed ceramic lid ("futa") rest, glazed in Sanpō style, and so forth.

- Fourteenth Generation : Mugensai Sekisō (1893-1964)
He was the eldest son of En'nosai, the thirteenth generation master. His childhood name was Seinosuke, and later he was named as Sōjaku. He got married with Kayoko Ito of Sendai in 1917. After this marriage, he changed his name to Tantansai, which was bestowed by Kuki Ryūichi, the Meiji period politician of modern Japan. His title name was Sekiso and also Baishi-an. Later, he entered the Buddhist priesthood under the instruction of Maruyama Den'ne, a priest at Daitoku-ji temple, Kyoto and was bestowed another title name Mugensai by him. In order to unify the tea ceremony styles, he established Tankōkai, and also to promote the Way of Tea abroad and cultural exchanges, he established Kokusai Sadō Bunka Kyokai ("International tea ceremony cultural association"). He was awarded Konju Hōsho, Medal with Dark Blue Ribbon and Shiju Hōsho, Medal with Purple Ribbon. These are Medals of Honor bestowed in the name of Emperor onto those who played active roles and made distinctive contribution in the field of social studies, culture and public welfare. Also, he was conferred a decoration and bestowed Dō Santō Kyokujitsu Chūju Shō, Order of the Rising Sun. As a tea practitioner he was the first person who received this award. He also received the Order of Cultural Merit from Brazil. He died in 1964 while traveling in Hokkaido. He was 71 years old. At his death he was granted Shōshi'i (Senior Forth Rank). His equipment of choice includes Uzumakie Také Hana Ire, a bamboo flower vase with gold lacquered swirl pattern, Jukō Seiji Hana Ire, a yellow-khaki ceramic flower vase, Hagoromo Kōgō, an incense container, Umetsuki Natsume, a weak green tea container with plum tree branch pattern, Mirunami Makie Robuchi, a lacquered wooden frame with ocean wave and pine tree design, to surround a built-in hearth on tatami floor of the tea room, and so forth.

- Fifteenth Generation : Hoh'unsai Hansō (1923- present)
He is the eldest son of Mugensai, the fourteenth generation master. His name is Masataka. He graduated from Doshisha University, with a degree in law. He also studied at University of Hawaii, and finished his PhD at Chung-Ang University graduate school in Korea. Hoh'unsai entered the Zen priesthood under the instruction of Gotō Zuikan, a priest at Daitoku-ji temple, Kyoto and was bestowed the title name Hō’unsai Genshūkō Koji by him. Also, he was bestowed the "Sai" title name, Kyoshin by Kajiura Itsugai, a priest at Myōshin-ji temple in Kyoto. In 2002, he handed over Iémoto position to the next generation and has been naming himself as Genshitsu. He received Shiju Hōsho, Medal with Purple Ribbon, and Aiju Hōsho, Medal with Blue Ribbon. These are Medals of Honor bestowed in the name of Emperor onto those who played active roles and made distinctive contribution in the field of social studies, culture and public welfares. Also he received Bunka Kōrōsho, Cultural Lifetime Achievement Award, and Bunka Dōshō, the Order of Cultural Merit. From outside Japan, he was awarded orders of cultural merit from West Germany and Brazil, and L'ordre national de la légion d'honneur from France. His equipment of choice includes Tōyama Gama, a cauldron with big and small mountain pattern, Tsuru Kumo Gama, a cauldron with flying crane pattern, and Ko’un Dana, a compact display shelf whose panels are decorated with cloud openworks. It also includes Shiki Kusabana Natsume, four pieces of Natsume with four seasons botanical patterns, Matsushima Jawan, Matsushima style tea bowls, Nanryō Kaigu, a silver-made complete set of tea ceremony equipment, and so forth.

- Sixteenth Generation : Zabōsai Genshitsu (1956- present)
He is the eldest son fo Hoh'unsai, the fifteenth generation master. His name is Masayuki. He graduated from Doshisha University. He entered the Zen priesthood under the instruction of Nakamura Sojun, a priest at Daitoku-ji temple, Kyoto and was bestowed the "Sai" title name Zabōsai by him. Later, he was instructed by Morinaga Sōkō, a Zen priest at Myōshin-ji temple in Kyoto. In 2002, he succeeded to be the sixteenth generation tea master.