Kyo-Yaki ware, the Eiraku family and the Eiraku masters

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Kyo-Yaki ware, the Eiraku family and the Eiraku masters

Message par Tsubo » 14 Août 2015, 00:15

Eiraku Zengoro
One of the Senke Jissoku "The Ten Craftsmen of the House of Sen". He was Doburo ("clay brasier"), pottery artist. His original last name was Nishimoto.

- The first Sōzen of the Nishimoto line (? -1558)
He lived in Nishikyo, Yamato-koku (today's Nara prefecture area) and created potteries for Kasuga Shrine in Nara. Takeno Jo-ou, a wealthy merchant of Sakai, Osaka, ordered him to create Doburo, which was called Nara Buro.

- The third Sōzen (? -1623)
He followed Rikyu and lived in Kyoto. He opened a shop in Shinmachi Kamidachiuri, where Hosokawa Sansai recommended. Kobori Enshū bestowed a bronze seal of Kanzen on to him and this Kanzen seal was continuously used for the next nine generations. It is said that the fifth Sōsen (?-1697) was the one who first started to accept orders from the Sen Family. In the Eiraku family, there remained a book of Furo attached with a note by Kōshin, the fourth generation master of Omotesenke.

- Sixth Generation : Sōtei (? -1714)
It is said that there remained Doburo ("clay brazier") created by Sōtei. This Doburo was created for Kakukakusai, the sixth generation Omotesenke tea master. It was especially to place Darumadō Gama ("a cube shaped iron pot with Darumadō letters carved") on top. In addition to mainly Furo and other iron/bronze works, the family started manufacturing pottery since Ryōzen, the tenth generation pottery master. Hōzen, the eleventh master was bestowed "Eiraku" seal, and in the era of Wazen, the twelfth generation master, the surname was renamed as Eiraku, that has been being used even today.

- Tenth Generation : Ryōzen (1770-1841)
At a young age, Ryōzen separated from his parents, lost his house in Tenmei fire and was adopted into Sen family. In his adulthood, Ryōzen joined Ryōnyū, the ninth generation master of Raku family and learned pottery. He created not only Doburo ("clay brazier") but also works in such styles as Kouchi Utsushi ("replica of Kouchi three color painting technique") and An’nan Utsushi ("replica of An’nan painting technique"). In 1817, character Ryō was bestowed by Ryōryōsai, the ninth generation tea master of Omotesenke ("Front Sen family"), and the name of Ryōzen was taken. In 1828, his adopted son Zengoro (later Hōzen, the eleventh master) was bestowed Eiraku seal. Ryōzen also renamed his surname to Eiraku. Ryōzen’s famous works include “Nejinuki Mizusashi” ("a water container with spiral pattern") of Omoteseke tradition, and "Kodō Utsushi Shakutate” (“bronze-made Shaku or a ladle stand in ancient look”), of Urasenke tradition. Also includes “Tanba-yaki Fune Hana-ire” (“Tanba style boat shaped flower vase”) of Mushakoji-Sen family tradition. Ryōryōsai, the ninth generation tea master especially preferred Ryōzen's "Shiyū Hou'ou Furo" (“purple brazier with phoenix design”).

- Eleventh Generation : Hōzen (1795-1854)
Hōzen was an adopted son of Ryōzen, the tenth generation master. He was first called Zengoro, and changed to Zen’ichiro. Later, he renamed his surname Eiraku. Hōzen was a born genius pottery artist. Hōzen learned techniques from the Iwakurayama family of Awataguchi, and also from Sanbai, a pottery crafts artist. In 1827 when Kyūkōsai Sōsa, the tea master was invited by Tokugawa Harutomi of Kishu (“Kii province”), Hōzen joined as well. There, Hōzen was bestowed gold seals: “Kahin Shiryu” and “Eiraku”. Since 1844, Hōzen started using “Zen’ichiro” as his signature. Also, he was bestowed the title “Tōkinken” and later its seal by Takatsukasa family. Since 1848, he took the name of Hōzen. The period of Zen’ichiro was the time he created the best of all his works. He was skillful at paint jobs, especially in detailed Shonzui Utsushi (replica) style.

- Twelfth Generation : Wazen (1823-1896)
His childhood name was Sentaro, however, commonly known as Zengoro. He was the eldest son of Hōzen, the eleventh generation master. In 1825, Wazen rebuilt the old kiln owned by Nonomura Ninsei in Omuro, Kyoto. Using “Omuro” seal, from 1864-1865 he manufactured pottery with his brother-in-law Sōzaburo who later became Kaizen, the thirteenth generation master. In 1872, he moved to Mikawa Okazaki (today’s Aichi area) and opened his kiln. The manufactured pottery there was called “Okazaki Eiraku”. In around 1882, Wazen moved back to Kyoto. In Kōdaiji Washio-cho, he opened Kikutani kiln. Wazen’s skill for “Kin’rande” (“Gold painted pottery”) was superior to Hōzen’s.

- Thirteen Generation : Kaizen and Kyokuzen
In the Eiraku family line, Sozaburo, the brother-in-law of Wazen, the twelfth generation master, and Nishiyama Tōsuke, who served Hōzen and Wazen count as their thirteenth generation masters. Kaizen Sozaburo (1834-1876) was the second son of paint artist Sano Chōkan. In 1874, Kaizen was adopted into Eiraku family, and first he was named Zenjiro. He manufactured pottery at Ninsei’s kiln in Omuro and used “Saien” seal. In 1849, he succeeded Wazen, later, however, he established a branch family and took the name of Nishimura Sozaburo.

- Fourteenth Generation : Tokuzen (1853-1909) & Myozen
His childhood name was Jojiro, commonly called Zengoro and/or Tokuzen. He was the eldest son of Wazen, the twelfth generation master. In 1872 at the age of 19, he succeeded as the head of the family from Wazen. His works were often dynamic and powerful. He was skillful especially at “Gosu Akae” (pottery with uninhibited patterns with red as a main pigment). His wife Yū (1852-1927) took the name of Myōzen. After Tokuzen’s death, she succeeded the family business and worked for 19 years. She left elegant pieces.

- Fifteenth Generation : Shōzen (1880-1932)
He was the nephew of Tokuzen, the fourteenth generation master. His real name was Yamamoto Harujiro. At the age of 18, he joined the Eiraku family and learned pottery techniques from Tokuzen. After Tokuzen’s death, together with Myōzen, Shōzen worked for the family business. After Myozen’s death in 1927, he succeeded as the fifteenth generation master. After 5 years of succession, however, he died. His style was gentle and he himself took the name of “Inzen”.

- Sixteenth Generation : Sokuzen (1917-1998)
Sokuzen was the eldest son of Shōzen, the fifteenth generation master. He was the adopted heir of Myozen. In 1935, he succeeded as the sixteenth generation master at the age of 18. Inherited Shōzen’s will, he built Shiroyama kiln at Oiso Besso, owned by the Mitsui family. With Daikaku, the fourteenth generation master of Raku family, he manufactured numbers of tea pottery for the Sanzen family, which led the tea society’s golden age after the world war two. Sokuzen received Bunka Kōrōsha award from the city of Kyoto and Bunka Tokubetsu Kōroō award from Kyoto prefecture. These awards are given to a person who performed services in the field of culture. His best-known works are a series of pottery based on 54 notebooks from the Tale of Genji presented in 1958.

- Seventeenth Generation : (Today’s master 1994- Present)

He is the eldest son of Sokuzen, the sixteenth generation master. His name is Kōichi. In 1988, he succeeded to Zengoro, the name of the seventeenth generation master.

Bruno

Re: Kyo-Yaki ware, the Eiraku family and the Eiraku masters

Message par Bruno » 17 Août 2015, 21:59

Well Tsubo, this series about Japanese ceramics is thoroughly impressing :-_-:

Tsubo
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Re: Kyo-Yaki ware, the Eiraku family and the Eiraku masters

Message par Tsubo » 17 Août 2015, 22:27

Only noticeable problem : unfortunately potters of the early Raku or Eiraku dynasties are largely mythical characters ...