Chanoyu : Omotesenke school and his Masters

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Chanoyu : Omotesenke school and his Masters

Message par Tsubo » 13 Août 2015, 22:44

Seulement "in english" pour l'instant (à moins que quelqu'un veuille se dévouer pour faire une traduction en français) un historique rapide des maîtres qui se sont succédé à la tête de l'école Omotesenke :

Omotesenke ("Front Sen House”)
Omotesenke is one of the three houses (families) descended from Sen no Rikyu, the Japanese tea master who perfected the Way of Tea in the 16th century. The title of head of the house passed down to the second and then third generation (Sen Shōan and Sen Sōtan, respectively). The fourth-generation head was known as Kōshin Sōsa, and it is this Sōsa name which the family line uses today. The Omotesenke tea room (chashitsu) is known as Fushin-an.

- Fourth Generation : Kōshin Sōsa (1612-1672)
Also known as Umenosuke, he was bestowed the chamei (tea practitioner name) Sōju, and later named Sōsa. Kōshin began working as a tea master for the Tokugawa family of the Kii Province in 1642. The domain master ordered Kōshin to organize family histories and related documents. Finally, with Sen’nami as the original ancestor, Sen family lineage was officially established. His equipment of choice was a large Shuteoke, (scarlet bucket), a Mikimachidana (double layer shelf), and a Karakane hou'ou-furo (Chinese copper brazier with a Phoenix design). Kōshin died in 1672.

- Fifth Generation : Zuiryūsai Ryōkyū (1650-1691)
He was the son of Sen Sōtan's daughter Kure and Hisada Sōri (the second generation of the Hisada line), and thus the nephew of Kōshin Sōsa, who had no children of his own. He was welcomed into the Omotesenke house in 1661. He was first known as Shōha, then Ryōkyū Sōsa, before finally receiving the title name Zuiryūsai from Ikkei Sōjū, a priest at Daitoku-ji, a temple in Kyoto. Zuiryūsai's equipment of choice was a Japanese ivy Chaoke, a container for Usucha, weak matcha or greent tea. He took his older brother Hisada Sōzen's son in as his adopted child, and died in 1691 at the age of 42.

- Sixth Generation : Kakukakusai Gensō (1678~1730)
His father was Hisada Sōzen and his childhood name was Kantaro. At the age of twelve, Kakukakusai was adopted to Zuiryūsai, and was disciplined by him. At the age of fourteen, Zuiryūsai died, and thus Kakukakusai succeeded as the sixth Sōsa and took the title name of Ryūhōken. The other title name Gensō was bestowed after his death. In 1723, Shogun Yoshimune Tokugawa at that time bestowed Karatsu Chawan (a Karatsu style tea bowl) on Kakukakusai. This tea bowl was also known as Kuwahara Chawan. Kakukakusai got married with Aki, the third daughter of Zuiryūsai. Aki bared three sons; Joshinsai, Sōkan, and Ittō. Joshinsai later became the seventh Sōsa. Sōkan and Ittō were adopted into Urasenke or “Back Sen family”, and they became the seventh Saisaisai and the eighth Yūgensai, respectively. His equipment of choice was Kirikiji Sanju Dana (“Three layer shelf, made of paulownia wood”), small and big Kikukiri Makie Fubuki (“gold-laquered containers with lids, made of chrysanthemum or paulownia wood”), Buriburi Kōgō (“an hexagonal cylinder-shaped container to hold incense”), Matsu-no-ki Shihō-Bon (“a square shaped tray, made of pine tree”), Tezuke Oki-kago (“a basket with a handle”), Sho-Amidado gama (“a round ball shaped copper cauldron with a small lid on top to heat water”), a set of Amie Kaiseki Kagu (“Fish net pattern tablewares for Kaiseki multi course cuisine.”). For Chashitsu, or, a tea ceremony room, he preferred Gensōdoko Yojōhan (“Genso style 4.5 tatami size room”), and Masudoko Yojōhan (“square setting 4.5 tatami size room”.)

- Seventh Generation : Joshinsai Ten’nen (1705~1751)
He was the eldest son of the sixth generation master Kakukakusai. His childhood name was Yotaro. Later he was named Sōha and Sōin. At the age of 26, Joshinsai succeeded as Iemoto, the head of the tea house. Yoshimune Tokugawa, then the lord of Kishu (“Kii province”) Tokugawa family bestowed title names Joshinsai and Tōtōken on him. Dairyu Sōjō, a Buddhist priest of Daitoku-ji temple in Kyoto, bestowed title names Ten'nen and Chinsai. Under the patronage of Kishu (“Kii province”) Tokugawa family, Joshinsai was financially supported by Mitsui Hachibe’e. Joshinsai set Shichiji Shiki, (“Seven Rules to deepen the spirits and techniques for the way of tea ceremony”) with the buddhist priests Mugaku Sōen and Dairyu Sōjō of Daitoku-ji temple in Kyoto, and his brother, Yūgensai, the eighth generation Urasenke (“Back Sen family”), and Nakamura Sōtetsu, the third generation Nushi, (“Lacquer master”). In Shichiji Shiki styles, Joshinsai preferred Kagetsurō room of Hachijo dokozuki (“8 tatami size room). In 1739, Rikyu-do (“Rikyu temple”) was built to cerebrate the 150th death anniversary of the Tea Master Rikyu.

- Eight Generation : Sotsutatsusai Ken’ō (1744~1808)
Sotsutatsusai’s childhood name was Yotaro. He was the eldest son of the seventh generation master Joshinsai. Joshinsai died when Yotaro was 8 years old. He was supported by Kawakami Fuhaku and so force. The eighth generation master Matagensō of Urasenke (“Back Sen family”) instructed and trained him to be the next tea master. At the age of fourteen, Sokutatsusai cerebrated the 100th death anniversary of Sōzen. He succeeded as the eighth tea master and took the name of Sōsa. In 1788, a large fire broke out, and Sokutatsusai lost everything in the fire, except for his tea ceremony equipment. His equipment of choice was Suri Urushi Maru Kōgō (Round lacquered container to hold incense). He enjoyed pine tree incense from the west garden of Fushin-an. His equipment of choice also includes Kan’name, a kind of Koita (“a wooden plate to place Furo or a brazier”), Matsunoki Tamenuri Marujoku (“pine-tree-made lacquered two-layer round shelf “ ), Tetsudōan Buro (“iron-made round brazier, whose 1/4 a rim removed”), Tsuta Hira Chaki (“a wide opened tea cup with ivy pattern”), and so on. In 1804, Sokutatsusai retired and took the name of Sōsa. To memorialize his retirement and the year of Kōshi from the twelve horary signs, he ordered Takumoto Yasuke to create a black and red Kōshi tea bowl.

- Ninth Generation : Ryōryōsai Kōshuku (1775~1825)
Ryōryōsai’s childhood name was Teizo. He was the eldest son of the six generation Sōkei of the Hisada lines. Both the eldest son and the eldest daughter of Sokutatsusai, the eighth generation master, died early. Sokutatsusai had three other daughters. Sawa was the oldest of the three. Leaving the Hisada lines, Ryōryōsai married into the family of his bride Sawa. At the age of 34, Ryōryōsai succeeded as the ninth generation tea master. He served Kishu (“Kii province”) Tokugawa family. He lived in Nishihama Goten (“palace”) in Wakayama. He preferred Sanjōdaime tea room at Jissaian there. Sanjōdaime is a tea room setting with combination of three full tatami space for guests and one smaller (about 3/4) Daime tatami. Sanjōdaime is generally roomier and easy to use. In the spring of 1819, Ryōryōsai started pottery making with Tan’nyu the tenth generation master of Raku family, one of the Senke Jissoku. In 1816, Gōdō Sōken of Daitoku-ji temple in Kyoto, bestowed a new title name Kōsetsuken. In April 1821, Bukemon, (“gate in the samurai residential style”) was built to invite Harutomi of Kishu (Kii province) Tokugawa family. This Bukemon became the main gate of Omotesenke. (“Front Sen family”) His choice of equipment includes Seishitsu Tsumakuredaisu (“blue/green lacquered wooden rectangle tray with red rims”), Shin’nuri Koteoke (“entirely black lacquered hand bucket”), Kin’iri Haiki (“an ash dish for Furo, or a brazier with gold decoration”), and Shuguro Amie Kaiseki Kagu (“crimson lacquered Kaiseki multi course cuisine tablewares with black fishnet pattern”).

- Tenth Generation : Kyūkōsai Sho’ō (1818~1860)
Ryōryōsai, the ninth generation master had a son, yet he died at an early age. His second son Kōkōsai remained with the Hisada family and he was married with the daughter of Sokutatsusai. They had a son named Tatsuzo. Thus, heirless Ryōryōsai welcomed Tatsuzo so that he could succeed to be the tenth generation master Kyūkōsai. Kyūkōsai was only nine years old at that time, thus, Sumiyama Yōhō became his guardian. After he turned 10, he started serving for Kishu (“Kii province” ) family. In 1836, Tokugawa Harutomi bestowed Daisu Shintenzen (“Tea ceremony manner that expresses the ultimate spirit and theory”) on Kyūkōsai. In 1839, to celebrate 250th death anniversary of Rikyu, Kyūkōsai held Tsuizen Chakai (“Memorial tea ceremony”). In 1845, he was given the title, Anshōken by Sesso Sōeki of Daitoku-ji temple in Kyoto. Later, he held the 100th death anniversary ceremony of Joshinsai and the 200th of Sōtan. His choice of equipment includes Tame Nijūdana (“ Tamenuri, often red-brown finished double layer shelf”), Tetsuki Kiri Tabacco Bon (“a paulownia wooden tray with a handle to store tobacco kits”), and Tama-no-e Natsume (“a small wooden lacquered container with a lid for weak matcha green tea with dot pattern”) .

-Eleventh Generation : Rokurokusai Zuiō (1837~1910)
He was the eldest son of Kyūkōsai, the tenth generation master. His childhood name was Yotaro. Later he took the name of Sōin and after Kyūkōsai’s death, Sōsa. He succeeded as the eleventh generation master in his twenties, however, soon the Meiji restoration occurred in 1868. Long loyal services to Kishu (Kii province) Tokugawa family that Kōshin had originally started generations ago finally ended. The tea master encountered hardships. However, by 1877, the tea ceremony society was able to step forward to the modern era. In 1880, Rokurokusai served tea for Kitano Ten’mangū (“Kitano Ten’mangū Shrine”), and offered tea for the 650th death anniversary of Myoe Shōnin at Togano’o Kōzanji Temple in Kyoto. Also, in 1890 he practiced the 300th memorial tea ceremony for Rikyu and the 200th for Zuiryūsai as well. In 1892, Rokurokusai retired and took the name of Sōtan. In 1906, he lost every house in fire, except for the main front gate. In 1909 , only Zangetsu-tei was rebuilt. His choice of equipment includes Kibō Natsume (a small lacquered weak matcha green tea container with a lid. Its boating design is inspired by a Chinese poet So Toba’s poem). Also it includes Fukube Gama, a round iron cauldron for heating water with two small angular handles.

- Twelfth Generation : Seisai Keiō (1863~1937)
Seisai was the eldest son of Rokurokusai, the eleventh master. Since Rokurokusai retired early, he succeeded as the twelfth master at a young age. Therefore, important events were practiced mainly by Rokurokusai. After Rokurokusai’s death, Seisai worked hard to recover Omotesenke (“Front Sen family”). In 1913, Fushin-an was rebuilt, and in 1921, Shōfūrō was added. His choice of equipment summed up the most in the entire masters. Many of the items were created by the Senke Jissoku (“The Ten Craftsmen of the House of Sen”). It also includes Kamakura Bori (“Kamakura style carving”), Hagi Yaki (“Hagi in Yamaguchi prefecture style pottery”), Zeze Yaki (“Zeze in Shiga prefecture style pottery”), and Satsuma Yaki (“Kagoshima style pottery”). Seisai’s heir Yotaro was bestowed the title Sōin by Maruyama Den’ne of Daitoku-ji temple in Kyoto in 1935. Together with his younger brother Kakujiro, he was supposed to become a help to his sickly father Saisei. However, Yotaro died at the age of 40, earlier than his father.

- Thirteenth Generation : Sokuchūsai Mujin (1901~1979)
He was the second son of Saisei, the twelfth generation master. Since his elder brother Sōin died young, Sokuchūsai succeeded as Sōsa in 1937. In 1949, Sokuchūsai established Fushin-an incorporated foundation. In 1975, he established Urasenke (“Back Sen family”) Dōmonkai (“alumni association”) corporation. He issued a society bulletin called “Dōmon” (”Same gate”, or, “Fellows”). Sokuchūsai died in 1979.

- Fourteenth Gereration : Jimyōsai Sōsa (1938~present)
He is the eldest son of Sokuchūsai, the thirteenth generation master. His real name is Shinichiro. Jimyōsai graduated from Chuō University in Tokyo. He succeeded as the fourteenth generation master in 1980.